Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Gulfport Energy Corporation, a Delaware corporation formed in 1997, is an independent natural gas-weighted exploration and production company focused on the production of natural gas, crude oil and NGL in the United States. The Company's principal properties are located in Eastern Ohio targeting the Utica formation and in central Oklahoma targeting the SCOOP Woodford and SCOOP Springer formations.
Voluntary Reorganization Under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code
On November 13, 2020, Gulfport Energy Corporation, Gator Marine, Inc., Gator Marine Ivanhoe, Inc., Grizzly Holdings, Inc., Gulfport Appalachia, LLC, Gulfport Midcon, LLC, Gulfport Midstream Holdings, LLC, Jaguar Resources LLC, Mule Sky LLC, Puma Resources, Inc. and Westhawk Minerals LLC filed voluntary petitions of relief under Chapter 11 of Title 11 of the United States Code in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Texas. The Chapter 11 Cases are being administered jointly under the caption In re Gulfport Energy Corporation, et al., Case No. 20-35562 (DRJ). The debtors continue to operate their businesses as "debtors-in-possession" under the jurisdiction of the Bankruptcy Court, in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Bankruptcy Code and the orders of the Bankruptcy Court.
The commencement of a voluntary proceeding in bankruptcy constituted an event of default that accelerated the Company's obligations under the Company's Pre-Petition Revolving Credit Facility and the indentures governing the Company's senior notes, resulting in the principal and interest due thereunder becoming immediately due and payable. Subject to certain specific exceptions under the Bankruptcy Code, the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases automatically stayed all judicial or administrative actions against the Company and efforts by creditors to collect on or otherwise exercise rights or remedies with respect to pre-petition claims. Absent an order from the Bankruptcy Court, substantially all of the Debtors’ pre-petition liabilities are subject to settlement under the Bankruptcy Code.
The Company has applied FASB ASC Topic 852 - Reorganizations ("ASC 852") in preparing the consolidated financial statements, which specifies the accounting and financial reporting requirements for entities reorganizing through Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings. These requirements include distinguishing transactions associated with the reorganization separate from activities related to the ongoing operations of the business. Accordingly, pre-petition liabilities that may be impacted by the Chapter 11 proceedings have been classified as liabilities subject to compromise on the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020. Additionally, certain expenses, realized gains and losses and provisions for losses that are realized or incurred during the Chapter 11 Cases, including adjustments to the carrying value of certain indebtedness are recorded as reorganization items, net in the consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020. Refer to Note 2 for more information on the events of the bankruptcy proceedings as well as the accounting and reporting impacts of the reorganization.
Ability to Continue as a Going Concern
The accompanying consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles applicable to a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business.
As discussed above, the filing of the Chapter 11 Cases constituted an event of default under the Company’s Pre-Petition Revolving Credit Facility and the indentures governing the Company's senior notes (the "Default"), resulting in the principal and interest due thereunder becoming immediately due and payable. The Company does not have sufficient cash on hand or available liquidity to repay these amounts due. These conditions and events raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.
As part of the Chapter 11 Cases, the Company submitted the Plan to the Bankruptcy Court. The Company’s operations and its ability to develop and execute its business plan are subject to a high degree of risk and uncertainty associated with the Chapter 11 Cases. The outcome of the Chapter 11 Cases is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and is dependent upon factors that are outside of the Company’s control, including actions of the Bankruptcy Court and the Company’s creditors.
There can be no assurance that the Company will confirm and consummate the plan of reorganization as contemplated by the RSA with certain holders of the Company’s senior notes or complete another plan of reorganization with respect to the Chapter 11 Cases. As a result, the Company has concluded that management’s plans do not alleviate substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.
While operating as a debtor-in-possession, the Company may settle liabilities, subject to the approval of the Bankruptcy Court or as otherwise permitted in the ordinary course of business, for amounts other than those reflected in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. Further, the Plan or other bankruptcy proceedings could materially change the amounts and classifications of assets and liabilities reported in the consolidated financial statements, including liabilities subject to compromise which will be resolved in connection with the Chapter 11 Cases. The accompanying consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments related to the recoverability and classification of assets or the amounts and classification of liabilities or any other adjustments that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern or as a consequence of the Chapter 11 Cases.
Risks and Uncertainties
In March 2020, the World Health Organization classified the outbreak of COVID-19 as a pandemic and recommended containment and mitigation measures worldwide. The measures have led to worldwide shutdowns and halting of commercial and interpersonal activity, as governments around the world have imposed regulations in efforts to control the spread of COVID-19 such as shelter-in-place orders, quarantines, executive orders and similar restrictions.
Gulfport remains focused on protecting the health and well-being of its employees and the communities in which it operates while assuring the continuity of its business operations. The Company implemented preventative measures and developed corporate and field response plans to minimize unnecessary risk of exposure and prevent infection. Additionally, the Company has a crisis management team for health, safety and environmental matters and personnel issues, and has established a COVID-19 Response Team to address various impacts of the situation, as they have been developing. Gulfport has modified certain business practices (including remote working for its corporate employees and restricted employee business travel) to conform to government restrictions and best practices encouraged by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization and other governmental and regulatory authorities. In May 2020, the Company began its phased transition back to the office for its corporate employees. As part of this transition, the Company put into place preventative measures to focus on social distancing and minimizing unnecessary risk of exposure. As of the date of this filing, Gulfport has transitioned the vast majority of its employees back to the corporate office; however, the Company continues to provide a balanced work schedule that allows for a significant portion of the work week to be performed remotely. The Company will continue to monitor trends and governmental guidelines and may adjust its return to office plans accordingly to ensure the health and safety of its employees. As a result of its business continuity measures, the Company has not experienced significant disruptions in executing its business operations in 2020.
On March 27, 2020, the U.S. government enacted the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”). The CARES Act did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements. Gulfport is closely monitoring the impact of COVID-19 on all aspects of its business and the current commodity price environment and is unable to predict the impact it will have on its future financial position or operating results.
Decreased demand for oil and natural gas as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic has put further downward pressure on commodity pricing. In the current depressed commodity price environment and period of economic uncertainty, the Company has taken the following operational and financial measures in 2020 to improve its balance sheet and preserve liquidity:
•Reduced 2020 capital spending by more than 50% as compared to 2019
•Focused on operational efficiencies to reduce operating costs; including significant improvements in development and completion costs per lateral foot
•Repurchased $73.3 million of unsecured notes at a discount
•Evaluated economics across our portfolio and shut-in certain non-economical production in the second quarter of 2020
•Reduced recurring corporate general and administrative costs significantly through pay reductions, furloughs and reductions in force.
Although management’s actions listed above have helped to improve the Company's liquidity and leverage profile, continued macro headwinds including the depressed state of energy capital markets and the extraordinarily low commodity price environments resulted in the Company filing for protection under Bankruptcy Rules as noted above.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Grizzly Holdings Inc., Jaguar Resources LLC, Gator Marine, Inc., Gator Marine Ivanhoe, Inc., Westhawk Minerals LLC, Puma Resources, Inc., Gulfport Appalachia LLC, Gulfport Midstream Holdings, LLC, Gulfport MidCon, LLC and Mule Sky LLC. All intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents for purposes of the consolidated financial statements.
The Company sells oil and natural gas to various purchasers and participates in drilling, completion and operation of oil and natural gas wells with joint interest owners on properties the Company operates. The related receivables are classified as accounts receivable—oil and natural gas sales and accounts receivable—joint interest and other, respectively. Credit is extended based on evaluation of a customer’s payment history and, generally, collateral is not required. Accounts receivable are due within 30 days and are stated at amounts due from customers, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts when the Company believes collection is doubtful. Accounts outstanding longer than the contractual payment terms are considered past due. The Company determines its allowance by considering a number of factors, including the length of time accounts receivable are past due, the Company’s previous loss history, the customer’s current ability to pay its obligation to the Company, amounts which may be obtained by an offset against production proceeds due the customer and the condition of the general economy and the industry as a whole. No material allowance was deemed necessary at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
Oil and Gas Properties
The Company uses the full cost method of accounting for oil and gas operations. Accordingly, all costs, including nonproductive costs and certain general and administrative costs directly associated with acquisition, exploration and development of oil and gas properties, are capitalized. Additionally, interest is capitalized on the cost of unproved oil and natural gas properties that are excluded from amortization for which exploration and development activities are in process or expected within the next 12 months.
Under the full cost method of accounting, the Company is required to perform a ceiling test each quarter. The test determines a limit, or ceiling, on the book value of the proved oil and gas properties. Net capitalized costs are limited to the lower of unamortized cost net of deferred income taxes or the cost center ceiling. The cost center ceiling is defined as the sum of (a) estimated future net revenues, discounted at 10% per annum, from proved reserves, based on the 12-month unweighted average of the first-day-of-the-month price, adjusted for any contract provisions or financial derivatives, if any, that hedge the Company’s oil and natural gas revenue (only to the extent that the derivative instruments are treated as cash flow hedges for accounting purposes), and excluding the estimated abandonment costs for properties with asset retirement obligations recorded on the balance sheet, (b) the cost of unproved properties not being amortized, if any, and (c) the lower of cost or market value of unproved properties included in the cost being amortized, including related deferred taxes for differences between the book and tax basis of the oil and natural gas properties. If the net book value, including related deferred taxes, exceeds the ceiling, an impairment or noncash writedown is required. Ceiling test impairment can result in a significant loss for a particular period; however, future depletion expense would be reduced. A decline in oil and gas prices may result in an impairment of oil and gas properties. As a result of the decline in commodity prices throughout 2020, the Company recognized ceiling test impairments of $1.4 billion for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Such capitalized costs, including the estimated future development costs and site remediation costs of proved undeveloped properties, are depleted by an equivalent units-of-production method, converting barrels to gas at the ratio of one barrel of oil to six Mcf of gas. No gain or loss is recognized upon the disposal of oil and gas properties, unless such dispositions significantly alter the relationship between capitalized costs and proved oil and gas reserves. Oil and gas properties not subject to amortization consist of the cost of unproved leaseholds and totaled approximately $1.5 billion and $1.7 billion at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. These costs are reviewed quarterly by management for impairment. If impairment
has occurred, the portion of cost in excess of the current value is transferred to the cost of oil and gas properties subject to amortization. Factors considered by management in its impairment assessment include drilling results by Gulfport and other operators, the terms of oil and gas leases not held by production, and available funds for exploration and development.
The Company accounts for its abandonment and restoration liabilities by recording a liability equal to the fair value of the estimated cost to retire an asset. The asset retirement liability is recorded in the period in which the obligation meets the definition of a liability, which is generally when the asset is placed into service. When the liability is initially recorded, the Company increases the carrying amount of oil and natural gas properties by an amount equal to the original liability. The liability is accreted to its present value each period, and the capitalized cost is included in capitalized costs and depreciated consistent with depletion of reserves. Upon settlement of the liability or the sale of the well, the liability is reversed. These liability amounts may change because of changes in asset lives, estimated costs of abandonment or legal or statutory remediation requirements.
Other Property and Equipment
Depreciation of other property and equipment is provided on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the related assets, which range from 3 to 30 years.
The U.S. dollar is the functional currency for Gulfport’s consolidated operations. However, the Company has an equity investment in a Canadian entity whose functional currency is the Canadian dollar. The assets and liabilities of the Canadian investment are translated into U.S. dollars based on the current exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet dates. Canadian income and expenses are translated at average rates for the periods presented and equity contributions are translated at the current exchange rate in effect at the date of the contribution. In addition, the Company has an equity investment in a U.S. company that has a subsidiary that is a Canadian entity whose functional currency is the Canadian dollar. Translation adjustments have no effect on net income and are included in accumulated other comprehensive income in stockholders’ (deficit) equity. The following table presents the balances of the Company’s cumulative translation adjustments included in accumulated other comprehensive loss, exclusive of taxes.
Net (Loss) Income per Common Share
Basic net (loss) income per common share is computed by dividing income attributable to common stock by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted net (loss) income per common share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if options or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock. Potential common shares are not included if their effect would be anti-dilutive. Calculations of basic and diluted net (loss) income per common share are illustrated in Note 12.
Gulfport uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences of (1) temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities and (2) operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are based on enacted tax rates applicable to the future period when those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income during the period the rate change is enacted. Deferred tax assets are recognized as income in the year in which realization becomes determinable. A valuation allowance is provided for deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company is subject to U.S. federal income tax as well as income tax of multiple jurisdictions. The Company’s 2003 – 2019 U.S. federal and 2009 - 2019 state income tax returns remain open to examination by tax authorities, due to net operating
losses. As of December 31, 2020, the Company has no unrecognized tax benefits that would have a material impact on the effective rate. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to income tax matters as interest expense and general and administrative expenses, respectively.
The Company’s revenues are primarily derived from the sale of natural gas, oil and condensate and NGL. Sales of natural gas, oil and condensate and NGL are recognized in the period that the performance obligations are satisfied. The Company generally considers the delivery of each unit (MMBtu or Bbl) to be separately identifiable and represents a distinct performance obligation that is satisfied at a point-in-time once control of the product has been transferred to the customer. The Company considers a variety of facts and circumstances in assessing the point of control transfer, including but not limited to (i) whether the purchaser can direct the use of the product, (ii) the transfer of significant risks, (iii) the Company’s right to payment and (iv) transfer of legal title.
Gathering, processing and compression fees attributable to gas processing, as well as any transportation fees, including firm transportation fees, incurred to deliver the product to the purchaser, are presented as midstream, gathering and processing expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Revenue is measured based on consideration specified in the contract with the customer, and excludes any amounts collected on behalf of third parties. These contracts typically include variable consideration that is based on pricing tied to market indices and volumes delivered in the current month. As such, this market pricing may be constrained (i.e., not estimable) at the inception of the contract but will be recognized based on the applicable market pricing, which will be known upon transfer of the goods to the customer. The payment date is usually within 30 days of the end of the calendar month in which the commodity is delivered.
The recognition of gains or losses on derivative instruments is outside the scope of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers and is not considered revenue from contracts with customers subject to ASC 606. The Company may use financial or physical contracts accounted for as derivatives as economic hedges to manage price risk associated with normal sales, or in limited cases may use them for contracts the Company intends to physically settle but do not meet all of the criteria to be treated as normal sales.
The Company has elected to exclude from the measurement of the transaction price all taxes assessed by governmental authorities that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction and collected by the Company from a customer, such as sales tax, use tax, value-added tax and similar taxes.
See Note 9 for additional discussion of revenue from contracts with customers.
Investments in entities in which the Company owns an equity interest greater than 20% and less than 50% and/or investments in which it has significant influence are accounted for under the equity method. Under the equity method, the Company’s share of investees’ earnings or loss is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company reviews its investments annually to determine if a loss in value which is other than a temporary decline has occurred. If such loss has occurred, the Company recognizes an impairment provision. The Company did not record any impairment charges related to its investments in Mammoth and Grizzly for the year ended December 31, 2020. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company recorded impairments of $160.8 million related to its investment in Mammoth Energy and $32.4 million related to its investment in Grizzly. There were no impairment charges recorded for the year ended December 31, 2018. See Note 5 for further discussion of Mammoth Energy and Grizzly impairments.
Accounting for Stock-based Compensation
Share-based payments to employees, including grants of restricted stock, are recognized as equity or liabilities at the fair value on the date of grant and to be expensed over the applicable vesting period. The vesting periods for restricted shares range between to three years with annual vesting installments. The Company does not recognize expense based on an estimate of forfeitures, but rather recognizes the impact of forfeitures only as they occur. The Company will continue to account for its share-based payments consistent with prior periods until the Bankruptcy Court takes specific actions to modify or cancel existing awards.
The Company utilizes commodity derivatives to manage the price risk associated with forecasted sale of its natural gas, crude oil and NGL production. All derivative instruments are recognized as assets or liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets, measured at fair value. The Company does not apply hedge accounting to derivative instruments. Accordingly, the changes in fair value are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations in the period of change. Gains and losses on derivatives are included in cash flows from operating activities.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates. Significant estimates with regard to these financial statements include the estimate of proved oil and gas reserve quantities and the related present value of estimated future net cash flows there from, the amount and timing of asset retirement obligations, the realization of deferred tax assets, the fair value determination of acquired assets and liabilities and the realization of future net operating loss carryforwards available as reductions of income tax expense. The estimate of the Company’s oil and gas reserves is used to compute depletion, depreciation, amortization and impairment of oil and gas properties.
Supplemental cash flow and non-cash information
In the fourth quarter of 2020, the Company updated the presentation of certain costs on its consolidated statements of operations to better align its cost reporting with industry peers. In particular, the Company created a new expense line item titled “Taxes other than income” in its consolidated statement of operations. This new line item includes production taxes, property taxes and certain other non-income tax related costs incurred. Prior period amounts have been reclassified to align to this new approach. The reclassifications have no impact on previously reported total assets, liabilities, net (loss) income or total operating cash flows.
Impact on Previously Reported Results
During the third quarter of 2020, the Company identified that certain transportation activities during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were misclassified between "natural gas sales" and "midstream gathering and processing expenses" on its consolidated statements of operations. The Company assessed the materiality of this presentation on prior periods’ consolidated financial statements in accordance with the SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 99, “Materiality”, codified in Accounting Standards Codification Topic 250, “Accounting Changes and Error Corrections". Based on this assessment, the Company concluded that the correction is not material to any previously issued financial statements. The correction had no impact on its consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of comprehensive income, consolidated statements of stockholders' equity or consolidated statements of cash flows. Additionally, the error had no impact on net loss or net loss per share. The Company will conform presentation of previously reported consolidated statements of operations in future filings.
The following tables present the effect of the correction on all affected line items of our previously issued consolidated financial statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Recent Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
On January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which replaces the incurred loss impairment methodology with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. The measurement of expected credit losses is based on relevant information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. The Company adopted the new standard using the prospective transition method, and it did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.