Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Gulfport Energy Corporation (“Gulfport” or the "Company"), a Delaware corporation formed in 1997, is an independent natural gas-weighted exploration and production company focused on the exploration, acquisition and production of natural gas, crude oil and natural gas liquids ("NGL") in the United States. The Company's principal properties are located in Eastern Ohio targeting the Utica formation and in central Oklahoma targeting the SCOOP Woodford and SCOOP Springer formations.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents for purposes of the consolidated financial statements.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Grizzly Holdings Inc., Jaguar Resources LLC, Gator Marine, Inc., Gator Marine Ivanhoe, Inc., Westhawk Minerals LLC, Puma Resources, Inc., Gulfport Appalachia LLC, Gulfport Midstream Holdings, LLC, Gulfport MidCon, LLC, Mule Sky LLC and GRUS, LLC. All intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Accounts Receivable
The Company sells oil and natural gas to various purchasers and participates in drilling, completion and operation of oil and natural gas wells with joint interest owners on properties the Company operates. The related receivables are classified as accounts receivable—oil and natural gas sales and accounts receivable—joint interest and other, respectively. Credit is extended based on evaluation of a customer’s payment history and, generally, collateral is not required. Accounts receivable are due within 30 days and are stated at amounts due from customers, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts when the Company believes collection is doubtful. Accounts outstanding longer than the contractual payment terms are considered past due. The Company determines its allowance by considering a number of factors, including the length of time accounts receivable are past due, the Company’s previous loss history, the customer’s current ability to pay its obligation to the Company, amounts which may be obtained by an offset against production proceeds due the customer and the condition of the general economy and the industry as a whole. The Company writes off specific accounts receivable when they become uncollectible, and payments subsequently received on such receivables are credited to the allowance for doubtful accounts. No allowance was deemed necessary at December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018.
Oil and Gas Properties
The Company uses the full cost method of accounting for oil and gas operations. Accordingly, all costs, including nonproductive costs and certain general and administrative costs directly associated with acquisition, exploration and development of oil and gas properties, are capitalized. Additionally, interest is capitalized on the cost of unproved oil and natural gas properties that are excluded from amortization for which exploration and development activities are in process or expected within the next 12 months.
Under the full cost method of accounting, the Company is required to perform a ceiling test each quarter. The test determines a limit, or ceiling, on the book value of the proved oil and gas properties. Net capitalized costs are limited to the lower of unamortized cost net of deferred income taxes or the cost center ceiling. The cost center ceiling is defined as the sum of (a) estimated future net revenues, discounted at 10% per annum, from proved reserves, based on the 12-month unweighted average of the first-day-of-the-month price, adjusted for any contract provisions or financial derivatives, if any, that hedge the Company’s oil and natural gas revenue (only to the extent that the derivative instruments are treated as cash flow hedges for accounting purposes), and excluding the estimated abandonment costs for properties with asset retirement obligations recorded on the balance sheet, (b) the cost of unproved properties not being amortized, if any, and (c) the lower of cost or market value of unproved properties included in the cost being amortized, including related deferred taxes for differences between the book and tax basis of the oil and natural gas properties. If the net book value, including related deferred taxes, exceeds the ceiling, an
impairment or noncash writedown is required. Ceiling test impairment can result in a significant loss for a particular period; however, future depletion expense would be reduced. A decline in oil and gas prices may result in an impairment of oil and gas properties. As a result of the decline in commodity prices at December 31, 2019, the Company recognized a ceiling test impairment of $2.0 billion for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Such capitalized costs, including the estimated future development costs and site remediation costs of proved undeveloped properties, are depleted by an equivalent units-of-production method, converting barrels to gas at the ratio of one barrel of oil to six Mcf of gas. No gain or loss is recognized upon the disposal of oil and gas properties, unless such dispositions significantly alter the relationship between capitalized costs and proved oil and gas reserves. Oil and gas properties not subject to amortization consist of the cost of unproved leaseholds and totaled approximately $1.7 billion and $2.9 billion at December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively. These costs are reviewed quarterly by management for impairment. If impairment has occurred, the portion of cost in excess of the current value is transferred to the cost of oil and gas properties subject to amortization. Factors considered by management in its impairment assessment include drilling results by Gulfport and other operators, the terms of oil and gas leases not held by production, and available funds for exploration and development.
The Company accounts for its abandonment and restoration liabilities by recording a liability equal to the fair value of the estimated cost to retire an asset. The asset retirement liability is recorded in the period in which the obligation meets the definition of a liability, which is generally when the asset is placed into service. When the liability is initially recorded, the Company increases the carrying amount of oil and natural gas properties by an amount equal to the original liability. The liability is accreted to its present value each period, and the capitalized cost is included in capitalized costs and depreciated consistent with depletion of reserves. Upon settlement of the liability or the sale of the well, the liability is reversed. These liability amounts may change because of changes in asset lives, estimated costs of abandonment or legal or statutory remediation requirements.
Other Property and Equipment
Depreciation of other property and equipment is provided on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the related assets, which range from 3 to 30 years.
Foreign Currency
The U.S. dollar is the functional currency for Gulfport’s consolidated operations. However, the Company has an equity investment in a Canadian entity whose functional currency is the Canadian dollar. The assets and liabilities of the Canadian investment are translated into U.S. dollars based on the current exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet dates. Canadian income and expenses are translated at average rates for the periods presented and equity contributions are translated at the current exchange rate in effect at the date of the contribution. In addition, the Company has an equity investment in a U.S. company that has a subsidiary that is a Canadian entity whose functional currency is the Canadian dollar. Translation adjustments have no effect on net income and are included in accumulated other comprehensive income in stockholders’ equity. The following table presents the balances of the Company’s cumulative translation adjustments included in accumulated other comprehensive loss, exclusive of taxes.
(In thousands)

December 31, 2016
December 31, 2017
December 31, 2018
December 31, 2019

Net Income per Common Share
Basic net income per common share is computed by dividing income attributable to common stock by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted net income per common share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if options or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock. Potential common shares are not included if their effect would be anti-dilutive. Calculations of basic and diluted net income per common share are illustrated in Note 11.
Income Taxes
Gulfport uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences of (1) temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities and (2) operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are based on enacted tax rates applicable to the future period when those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income during the period the rate change is enacted. Deferred tax assets are recognized as income in the year in which realization becomes determinable. A valuation allowance is provided for deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company is subject to U.S. federal income tax as well as income tax of multiple jurisdictions. The Company’s 2005 – 2018 U.S. federal and 1999 - 2018 state income tax returns remain open to examination by tax authorities, due to net operating losses. As of December 31, 2019, the Company has no unrecognized tax benefits that would have a material impact on the effective rate. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to income tax matters as interest expense and general and administrative expenses, respectively.
Revenue Recognition
The Company’s revenues are primarily derived from the sale of natural gas, oil and condensate and NGL. Sales of natural gas, oil and condensate and NGL are recognized in the period that the performance obligations are satisfied. The Company generally considers the delivery of each unit (MMBtu or Bbl) to be separately identifiable and represents a distinct performance obligation that is satisfied at a point-in-time once control of the product has been transferred to the customer. The Company considers a variety of facts and circumstances in assessing the point of control transfer, including but not limited to (i) whether the purchaser can direct the use of the product, (ii) the transfer of significant risks, (iii) the Company’s right to payment and (iv) transfer of legal title.
Revenue is measured based on consideration specified in the contract with the customer, and excludes any amounts collected on behalf of third parties. These contracts typically include variable consideration that is based on pricing tied to market indices and volumes delivered in the current month. As such, this market pricing may be constrained (i.e., not estimable) at the inception of the contract but will be recognized based on the applicable market pricing, which will be known upon transfer of the goods to the customer. The payment date is usually within 30 days of the end of the calendar month in which the commodity is delivered.
The recognition of gains or losses on derivative instruments is outside the scope of Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC 606") and is not considered revenue from contracts with customers subject to ASC 606. The Company may use financial or physical contracts accounted for as derivatives as economic hedges to manage price risk associated with normal sales, or in limited cases may use them for contracts the Company intends to physically settle but do not meet all of the criteria to be treated as normal sales.
The Company has elected to exclude from the measurement of the transaction price all taxes assessed by governmental authorities that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction and collected by the Company from a customer, such as sales tax, use tax, value-added tax and similar taxes.
See Note 8 for additional discussion of revenue from contracts with customers.
Investments—Equity Method
Investments in entities in which the Company owns an equity interest greater than 20% and less than 50% and/or investments in which it has significant influence are accounted for under the equity method. Under the equity method, the Company’s share of investees’ earnings or loss is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company reviews its investments annually to determine if a loss in value which is other than a temporary decline has occurred. If such loss has occurred, the Company recognizes an impairment provision. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company recorded an impairment of $160.8 million related to its investment in Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. ("Mammoth Energy") and an impairment of $32.4 million related to its investment in Grizzly Oil Sands ULC ("Grizzly"). There were no impairment charges recorded for the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2018. See Note 4 for further discussion of Mammoth Energy and Grizzly impairments.
Accounting for Stock-based Compensation
Share-based payments to employees, including grants of restricted stock, are recognized as equity or liabilities at the fair value on the date of grant and to be expensed over the applicable vesting period. The vesting periods for restricted shares range between one to four years with annual vesting installments. The Company does not recognize expense based on an estimate of forfeitures, but rather recognizes the impact of forfeitures only as they occur.
Derivative Instruments
The Company utilizes commodity derivatives to manage the price risk associated with forecasted sale of its natural gas, crude oil and NGL production. All derivative instruments are recognized as assets or liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets, measured at fair value. The Company does not apply hedge accounting to derivative instruments. Accordingly, the changes in fair value are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations in the period of change. Gains and losses on derivatives are included in cash flows from operating activities.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates. Significant estimates with regard to these financial statements include the estimate of proved oil and gas reserve quantities and the related present value of estimated future net cash flows there from, the amount and timing of asset retirement obligations, the realization of deferred tax assets, the fair value determination of acquired assets and liabilities and the realization of future net operating loss carryforwards available as reductions of income tax expense. The estimate of the Company’s oil and gas reserves is used to compute depletion, depreciation, amortization and impairment of oil and gas properties.
Certain reclassifications have been made to prior period financial statements and related disclosures to conform to current period presentation. These reclassifications have no impact on previous reported total assets, total liabilities, net (loss) income or total operating cash flows.
Statements of Cash Flows
During the third quarter of 2019, the Company identified that certain activities were misclassified between cash flows from operating activities and cash flows from investing activities. These activities had been included in accounts payable, accrued liabilities and other and presented as cash flows from operating activities while they should have been presented as additions to oil and natural gas properties in cash flows from investing activities.  The Company corrected the previously presented statements of cash flows for these additions and in doing so, for the year ended December 31, 2018, the consolidated statements of cash flows and the condensed consolidating statements of cash flows were adjusted to increase net cash flows provided by operating activities by $33.8 million with a corresponding increase in net cash flows used in investing activities. The Company has evaluated the effect of the incorrect presentation, both qualitatively and quantitatively, and concluded that it did not have a material impact on any previously filed annual or quarterly consolidated financial statements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In January 2019, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) on a prospective basis using the simplified transition method permitted by ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements. See Note 9 for further discussion of the lease standard.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This ASU amends guidance on reporting credit losses for assets held at amortized cost basis and available for sale debt securities. For assets held at amortized cost basis, this ASU eliminates the probable initial recognition threshold in current GAAP and instead, requires an entity to reflect its current estimate of all expected credit losses. The amendments affect loans, debt securities, trade receivables, net investments in leases, off balance sheet credit exposure, reinsurance receivables and any other financial assets not excluded from the scope that have the contractual right to receive cash. Subsequent to ASU 2016-13, the FASB issued several related ASU’s to clarify the application of the credit loss standard.
The guidance is effective for periods after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted the standard as of January 1, 2020 with no material effect on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In July 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-07, Codification Updates to SEC Sections, Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Final Rule Releases No. 33-10532, Disclosure Update and Simplification, and Nos. 33-10231 and 33-10442, Investment Company Reporting Modernization, and Miscellaneous Updates. This ASU amends various SEC sections within the FASB Codification to align with the updated requirements of certain SEC final rules and includes miscellaneous updates to agree the language in the Codification to the electronic Code of Federal Regulations. ASU No. 2019-07 is effective upon issuance, and the Company has adopted the changes with no material impacts.