Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Gulfport Energy Corporation (“Gulfport” or the “Company”) is an independent oil and gas exploration, development and production company with its principal properties located in the Utica Shale primarily in Eastern Ohio and the SCOOP Woodford and SCOOP Springer plays in Oklahoma. The Company also holds an acreage position along the Louisiana Gulf Coast in the West Cote Blanche Bay and Hackberry fields and has an interest in producing properties in Northwestern Colorado in the Niobrara Formation and in Western North Dakota in the Bakken Formation, and has investments in companies operating in the United States, Canada and Thailand.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents for purposes of the statement of cash flows.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Grizzly Holdings Inc., Jaguar Resources LLC, Gator Marine, Inc., Gator Marine Ivanhoe, Inc., Westhawk Minerals LLC, Puma Resources, Inc., Gulfport Appalachia LLC, Gulfport Midstream Holdings, LLC, and Gulfport MidCon, LLC. All intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Accounts Receivable
The Company sells oil and natural gas to various purchasers and participates in drilling, completion and operation of oil and natural gas wells with joint interest owners on properties the Company operates. The related receivables are classified as accounts receivable—oil and natural gas sales and accounts receivable—joint interest and other, respectively. Credit is extended based on evaluation of a customer’s payment history and, generally, collateral is not required. Accounts receivable are due within 30 days and are stated at amounts due from customers, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts when the Company believes collection is doubtful. Accounts outstanding longer than the contractual payment terms are considered past due. The Company determines its allowance by considering a number of factors, including the length of time accounts receivable are past due, the Company’s previous loss history, the customer’s current ability to pay its obligation to the Company, amounts which may be obtained by an offset against production proceeds due the customer and the condition of the general economy and the industry as a whole. The Company writes off specific accounts receivable when they become uncollectible, and payments subsequently received on such receivables are credited to the allowance for doubtful accounts. No allowance was deemed necessary at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017.
Oil and Gas Properties
The Company uses the full cost method of accounting for oil and gas operations. Accordingly, all costs, including nonproductive costs and certain general and administrative costs directly associated with acquisition, exploration and development of oil and gas properties, are capitalized. Under the full cost method of accounting, the Company is required to perform a ceiling test each quarter. The test determines a limit, or ceiling, on the book value of the oil and gas properties. Net capitalized costs are limited to the lower of unamortized cost net of deferred income taxes or the cost center ceiling. The cost center ceiling is defined as the sum of (a) estimated future net revenues, discounted at 10% per annum, from proved reserves, based on the 12-month unweighted average of the first-day-of-the-month price for 2018, 2017 and 2016, adjusted for any contract provisions or financial derivatives, if any, that hedge the Company’s oil and natural gas revenue, and excluding the estimated abandonment costs for properties with asset retirement obligations recorded on the balance sheet, (b) the cost of properties not being amortized, if any, and (c) the lower of cost or market value of unproved properties included in the cost being amortized, including related deferred taxes for differences between the book and tax basis of the oil and natural gas properties. If the net book value, including related deferred taxes, exceeds the ceiling, an impairment or noncash writedown is required. Ceiling test impairment can result in a significant loss for a particular period; however, future depletion expense would be reduced. A decline in oil and gas prices may result in an impairment of oil and gas properties. The Company did not recognize a ceiling test impairment for the year ended December 31, 2018.
Such capitalized costs, including the estimated future development costs and site remediation costs of proved undeveloped properties are depleted by an equivalent units-of-production method, converting barrels to gas at the ratio of one barrel of oil to six Mcf of gas. No gain or loss is recognized upon the disposal of oil and gas properties, unless such dispositions significantly alter the relationship between capitalized costs and proven oil and gas reserves. Oil and gas properties not subject to amortization consist of the cost of unproved leaseholds and totaled approximately $2.9 billion at both December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017. These costs are reviewed quarterly by management for impairment. If impairment has occurred, the portion of cost in excess of the current value is transferred to the cost of oil and gas properties subject to amortization. Factors considered by management in its impairment assessment include drilling results by Gulfport and other operators, the terms of oil and gas leases not held by production, and available funds for exploration and development.
The Company accounts for its abandonment and restoration liabilities by recording a liability equal to the fair value of the estimated cost to retire an asset. The asset retirement liability is recorded in the period in which the obligation meets the definition of a liability, which is generally when the asset is placed into service. When the liability is initially recorded, the Company increases the carrying amount of oil and natural gas properties by an amount equal to the original liability. The liability is accreted to its present value each period, and the capitalized cost is included in capitalized costs and depreciated consistent with depletion of reserves. Upon settlement of the liability or the sale of the well, the liability is reversed. These liability amounts may change because of changes in asset lives, estimated costs of abandonment or legal or statutory remediation requirements.
Other Property and Equipment
Depreciation of other property and equipment is provided on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the related assets, which range from 3 to 30 years.
Foreign Currency
The U.S. dollar is the functional currency for Gulfport’s consolidated operations. However, the Company has an equity investment in a Canadian entity whose functional currency is the Canadian dollar. The assets and liabilities of the Canadian investment are translated into U.S. dollars based on the current exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet dates. Canadian income and expenses are translated at average rates for the periods presented and equity contributions are translated at the current exchange rate in effect at the date of the contribution. In addition, the Company has an equity investment in a U.S. company that has a subsidiary that is a Canadian entity whose functional currency is the Canadian dollar. Translation adjustments have no effect on net income and are included in accumulated other comprehensive income in stockholders’ equity. The following table presents the balances of the Company’s cumulative translation adjustments included in accumulated other comprehensive loss, exclusive of taxes.
(In thousands)

December 31, 2015
December 31, 2016
December 31, 2017
December 31, 2018

Net Income per Common Share
Basic net income per common share is computed by dividing income attributable to common stock by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted net income per common share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if options or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock. Potential common shares are not included if their effect would be anti-dilutive. Calculations of basic and diluted net income per common share are illustrated in Note 12.
Income Taxes
Gulfport uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences of (1) temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities and (2) operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are based on enacted tax rates applicable to the future period when those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income during the period the rate change is enacted. Deferred tax assets are recognized as income in the year in which realization becomes determinable. A valuation allowance is provided for deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company is subject to U.S. federal income tax as well as income tax of multiple jurisdictions. The Company’s 2004 – 2017 U.S. federal and 1998 - 2017 state income tax returns remain open to examination by tax authorities, due to net operating losses. As of December 31, 2018, the Company has no unrecognized tax benefits that would have a material impact on the effective rate. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to income tax matters as interest expense and general and administrative expenses, respectively.
On December 22, 2018, the Company finalized the provisional accounting for the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("Tax Act"), which was enacted in 2017. Further information on the tax impacts of the Tax Act is included in Note 11 of the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Revenue Recognition
The Company’s revenues are primarily derived from the sale of natural gas, oil and condensate and NGLs. Sales of natural gas, oil and condensate and NGLs are recognized in the period that the performance obligations are satisfied. The Company generally considers the delivery of each unit (MMBtu or Bbl) to be separately identifiable and represents a distinct performance obligation that is satisfied at a point-in-time once control of the product has been transferred to the customer. The Company considers a variety of facts and circumstances in assessing the point of control transfer, including but not limited to (i) whether the purchaser can direct the use of the product, (ii) the transfer of significant risks, (iii) the Company’s right to payment and (iv) transfer of legal title.
Revenue is measured based on consideration specified in the contract with the customer, and excludes any amounts collected on behalf of third parties. These contracts typically include variable consideration that is based on pricing tied to market indices and volumes delivered in the current month. As such, this market pricing may be constrained (i.e., not estimable) at the inception of the contract but will be recognized based on the applicable market pricing, which will be known upon transfer of the goods to the customer. The payment date is usually within 30 days of the end of the calendar month in which the commodity is delivered.
The recognition of gains or losses on derivative instruments is outside the scope of Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC 606") and is not considered revenue from contracts with customers subject to ASC 606. The Company may use financial or physical contracts accounted for as derivatives as economic hedges to manage price risk associated with normal sales, or in limited cases may use them for contracts the Company intends to physically settle but do not meet all of the criteria to be treated as normal sales.
The Company has elected to exclude from the measurement of the transaction price all taxes assessed by governmental authorities that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction and collected by the Company from a customer, such as sales tax, use tax, value-added tax and similar taxes.
See Note 10 for additional discussion of revenue from contracts with customers.
Investments—Equity Method
Investments in entities in which the Company owns an equity interest greater than 20% and less than 50% and/or investments in which it has significant influence are accounted for under the equity method. Under the equity method, the Company’s share of investees’ earnings or loss is recognized in the statement of operations.
The Company reviews its investments annually to determine if a loss in value which is other than a temporary decline has occurred. If such loss has occurred, the Company recognizes an impairment provision. The Company recognized an impairment charge of $23.1 million related to its investment in Grizzly Oil Sands ULC for the year ended December 31, 2016. There were no impairment charges recorded for the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2018.

Accounting for Stock-based Compensation
Share-based payments to employees, including grants of restricted stock, are recognized as equity or liabilities at the fair value on the date of grant and to be expensed over the applicable vesting period. The vesting periods for restricted shares range between one to four years with annual vesting installments. The Company does not recognize expense based on an estimate of forfeitures, but rather recognizes the impact of forfeitures only as they occur.
Derivative Instruments
The Company utilizes commodity derivatives to manage the price risk associated with forecasted sale of its natural gas, crude oil and natural gas liquid production. All derivative instruments are recognized as assets or liabilities in the balance sheet, measured at fair value. The Company does not apply hedge accounting to derivative instruments. Accordingly, the changes in fair value are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations in the period of change. Gains and losses on derivatives are included in cash flows from operating activities.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates. Significant estimates with regard to these financial statements include the estimate of proved oil and gas reserve quantities and the related present value of estimated future net cash flows there from, the amount and timing of asset retirement obligations, the realization of deferred tax assets, the fair value determination of acquired assets and liabilities and the realization of future net operating loss carryforwards available as reductions of income tax expense. The estimate of the Company’s oil and gas reserves is used to compute depletion, depreciation, amortization and impairment of oil and gas properties.
Certain reclassifications have been made to prior period financial statements and related disclosures to conform to current period presentation. These reclassifications have no impact on previous reported total assets, total liabilities, net income (loss) or total operating cash flows.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in Topic 605, Revenue Recognition, and most industry-specific guidance with Topic 606. Subsequent to ASU 2014-09, the FASB issued several related ASU's to clarify the application of the revenue recognition standard. The core principle of the new standard is for the recognition of revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in amounts that reflect the payment to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company adopted ASC 606 as of January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective transition method applied to contracts that were not completed as of that date. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 are presented under the new revenue standard. Under the modified retrospective method, the Company recognizes the cumulative effect of initially applying the new revenue standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings; however, no adjustment was required as a result of adopting the new revenue standard. The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the historic accounting standards in effect for those periods. The impact of the adoption of the new revenue standard is not expected to be material to the Company’s net income on an ongoing basis. See Note 10 for further discussion of the revenue standard.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The standard supersedes the previous lease guidance by requiring lessees to recognize a right-to-use asset and lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with lease terms of greater than one year while maintaining substantially similar classifications for financing and operating leases. The guidance is effective for periods after December 15, 2018, and the Company will adopt beginning January 1, 2019 using the transition method permitted by ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, issued in August 2018, which permits an entity to recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption with no adjustment made to the comparative periods presented in the consolidated financial statements. The Company will also utilize the practical expedient provided by ASU 2018-11 to not separate non-lease components from the associated lease component and, instead, to account for those components as a single component if the non-lease components would be accounted for under ASC 606 and other conditions are met.
The Company has identified its portfolio of leased assets under the new standard and has evaluated the impact of this guidance on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. Offsetting right-of-use assets and corresponding lease liabilities recognized by the Company on the adoption date totaled approximately $110 million, representing minimum payment obligations associated with identified leases with contractual durations longer than one year. Adoption of the new standard will not result in a material impact to the consolidated statement of operations. The Company has implemented processes and controls needed to comply with the requirements of the new standard, which includes the implementation of a lease accounting software solution to support lease portfolio management and accounting and disclosures.
Additionally, in January 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-01, Leases (Topic 842): Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842. The amendments in this update provide an optional expedient to not evaluate existing or expired land easements that were not previously accounted for under current leases guidance in Topic 840. An entity that elects this practical expedient should evaluate new or modified land easements beginning at the date of adoption. The Company does not currently account for any land easements under Topic 840 and plans to utilize this practical expedient in conjunction with the adoption of ASU 2016-02.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This ASU amends guidance on reporting credit losses for assets held at amortized cost basis and available for sale debt securities. For assets held at amortized cost basis, this ASU eliminates the probable initial recognition threshold in current GAAP and instead, requires an entity to reflect its current estimate of all expected credit losses. The amendments affect loans, debt securities, trade receivables, net investments in leases, off balance sheet credit exposure, reinsurance receivables and any other financial assets not excluded from the scope that have the contractual right to receive cash. The guidance is effective for periods after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this standard will have on its financial statements and related disclosures and does not anticipate it to have a material effect.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows: Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. This ASU clarifies how certain cash receipts and cash payments should be classified and presented in the statement of cash flows. The Company adopted this standard in the first quarter of 2018 and has made an accounting policy election to classify distributions received from equity method investees using the nature of the distribution approach, which classifies distributions received from investees as either cash inflows from operating activities or cash inflows from investing activities in the statement of cash flows based on the nature of the activities of the investee that generated the distribution. The impact of adopting this ASU was not material to prior periods presented.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash. This ASU requires that amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period amounts shown on the statement of cash flows and to provide a reconciliation of the totals in the statement of cash flows to the related captions in the balance sheet when the cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, and restricted cash equivalents are presented in more than one line item on the balance sheet. The Company adopted this standard in the first quarter of 2018 using the retrospective transition method. The adoption of this standard had no impact on the statement of cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2018. As a result of the adoption, $185.0 million in restricted cash was removed from net cash used in investing resulting in an increase to the ending cash balance for the year ended December 31, 2016. The adoption also resulted in an addition of $185.0 million in restricted cash to the net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2017. This addition and the resulting decrease to ending cash was offset by the increase to beginning cash balance of $185.0 million due to the changes at December 31, 2016. Therefore, there was no net impact on the statement of cash flows as of December 31, 2017.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Clarifying the Definition of a Business. Under the current business combination guidance, there are three elements of a business: inputs, processes and outputs. The revised guidance adds an initial screen test to determine if substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single asset or group of similar assets. If that screen is met, the set of assets is not a business. The new framework also specifies the minimum required inputs and processes necessary to be a business. The Company adopted this standard in the first quarter of 2018 with no significant effect on its financial statements or related disclosures.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, Income statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220) - Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income, which allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for standard tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. The amendment will be effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and early adoption is permitted. The Company assessed the impact of the ASU on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, and determined there was no material impact.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which removes, modifies, and adds certain disclosure requirements on fair value measurements. The amendment will be effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently assessing the impact of the ASU on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other—Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract, which aligns the accounting for costs associated with implementing a cloud computing arrangement in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the accounting for implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. The amendment will be effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently assessing the impact of the ASU on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2018, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") issued Final Rule Release No. 33-10532, Disclosure Update and Simplification, which amends certain disclosure requirements that were redundant, duplicative, overlapping or superseded. Under these amendments, the annual disclosure requirements on the analysis of stockholders' equity is extended to interim financial statements. The Company will present an analysis of changes in stockholders' equity for the current and comparative year-to-date interim periods. The final rule is effective November 5, 2018, and the Company will begin presenting this analysis beginning with the quarter ended March 31, 2019.
In November 2018, the FASB also issued ASU No. 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808): Clarifying the Interaction Between Topic 808 and Topic 606, which provides guidance on how to assess whether certain transactions between participants in a collaborative arrangement should be accounted for within the ASU No. 2014-09 revenue recognition standard discussed above. The amendment will be effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently assessing the impact of the ASU on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.