Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Gulfport Energy Corporation (“Gulfport” or the “Company”) is an independent oil and gas exploration, development and production company with its principal properties located in the Utica Shale primarily in Eastern Ohio and the SCOOP Woodford and SCOOP Springer plays in Oklahoma. The Company also holds an acreage position along the Louisiana Gulf Coast in the West Cote Blanche Bay and Hackberry fields and has an interest in producing properties in Northwestern Colorado in the Niobrara Formation and in Western North Dakota in the Bakken Formation, and has investments in companies operating in the United States, Canada and Thailand.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents for purposes of the statement of cash flows.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Grizzly Holdings Inc., Jaguar Resources LLC, Gator Marine, Inc., Gator Marine Ivanhoe, Inc., Westhawk Minerals LLC, Puma Resources, Inc., Gulfport Appalachia LLC, Gulfport Midstream Holdings, LLC, and Gulfport MidCon, LLC. All intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Accounts Receivable
The Company’s accounts receivable—oil and gas primarily are from companies in the oil and gas industry. The majority of its receivables are from three purchasers of the Company’s oil and natural gas and receivables from joint interest owners on properties the Company operates. Credit is extended based on evaluation of a customer’s payment history and, generally, collateral is not required. Accounts receivable are due within 30 days and are stated at amounts due from customers, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts when the Company believes collection is doubtful. Accounts outstanding longer than the contractual payment terms are considered past due. The Company determines its allowance by considering a number of factors, including the length of time accounts receivable are past due, the Company’s previous loss history, the customer’s current ability to pay its obligation to the Company, amounts which may be obtained by an offset against production proceeds due the customer and the condition of the general economy and the industry as a whole. The Company writes off specific accounts receivable when they become uncollectible, and payments subsequently received on such receivables are credited to the allowance for doubtful accounts. No allowance was deemed necessary at December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016.
Oil and Gas Properties
The Company uses the full cost method of accounting for oil and gas operations. Accordingly, all costs, including nonproductive costs and certain general and administrative costs directly associated with acquisition, exploration and development of oil and gas properties, are capitalized. Under the full cost method of accounting, the Company is required to perform a ceiling test each quarter. The test determines a limit, or ceiling, on the book value of the oil and gas properties. Net capitalized costs are limited to the lower of unamortized cost net of deferred income taxes or the cost center ceiling. The cost center ceiling is defined as the sum of (a) estimated future net revenues, discounted at 10% per annum, from proved reserves, based on the 12-month unweighted average of the first-day-of-the-month price for 2017, 2016 and 2015, adjusted for any contract provisions or financial derivatives, if any, that hedge the Company’s oil and natural gas revenue, and excluding the estimated abandonment costs for properties with asset retirement obligations recorded on the balance sheet, (b) the cost of properties not being amortized, if any, and (c) the lower of cost or market value of unproved properties included in the cost being amortized, including related deferred taxes for differences between the book and tax basis of the oil and natural gas properties. If the net book value, including related deferred taxes, exceeds the ceiling, an impairment or noncash writedown is required. Ceiling test impairment can result in a significant loss for a particular period; however, future depletion expense would be reduced. A decline in oil and gas prices may result in an impairment of oil and gas properties. The Company did not recognize a ceiling test impairment for the year ended December 31, 2017.
Such capitalized costs, including the estimated future development costs and site remediation costs of proved undeveloped properties are depleted by an equivalent units-of-production method, converting barrels to gas at the ratio of one barrel of oil to six Mcf of gas. No gain or loss is recognized upon the disposal of oil and gas properties, unless such dispositions significantly alter the relationship between capitalized costs and proven oil and gas reserves. Oil and gas properties not subject to amortization consist of the cost of unproved leaseholds and totaled approximately $2.9 billion and $1.6 billion at December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. These costs are reviewed quarterly by management for impairment. If impairment has occurred, the portion of cost in excess of the current value is transferred to the cost of oil and gas properties subject to amortization. Factors considered by management in its impairment assessment include drilling results by Gulfport and other operators, the terms of oil and gas leases not held by production, and available funds for exploration and development.
The Company accounts for its abandonment and restoration liabilities under Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 410, “Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations” (“FASB ASC 410”), which requires the Company to record a liability equal to the fair value of the estimated cost to retire an asset. The asset retirement liability is recorded in the period in which the obligation meets the definition of a liability, which is generally when the asset is placed into service. When the liability is initially recorded, the Company increases the carrying amount of oil and natural gas properties by an amount equal to the original liability. The liability is accreted to its present value each period, and the capitalized cost is included in capitalized costs and depreciated consistent with depletion of reserves. Upon settlement of the liability or the sale of the well, the liability is reversed. These liability amounts may change because of changes in asset lives, estimated costs of abandonment or legal or statutory remediation requirements.
Other Property and Equipment
Depreciation of other property and equipment is provided on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the related assets, which range from 3 to 30 years.
Foreign Currency
The U.S. dollar is the functional currency for Gulfport’s consolidated operations. However, the Company has an equity investment in a Canadian entity whose functional currency is the Canadian dollar. The assets and liabilities of the Canadian investment are translated into U.S. dollars based on the current exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet dates. Canadian income and expenses are translated at average rates for the periods presented and equity contributions are translated at the current exchange rate in effect at the date of the contribution. In addition, the Company has an equity investment in a U.S. company that has a subsidiary that is a Canadian entity whose functional currency is the Canadian dollar. Translation adjustments have no effect on net income and are included in accumulated other comprehensive income in stockholders’ equity. The following table presents the balances of the Company’s cumulative translation adjustments included in accumulated other comprehensive loss, exclusive of taxes.
(In thousands)

December 31, 2014
December 31, 2015
December 31, 2016
December 31, 2017

Net Income per Common Share
Basic net income per common share is computed by dividing income attributable to common stock by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted net income per common share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if options or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock. Potential common shares are not included if their effect would be anti-dilutive. Calculations of basic and diluted net income per common share are illustrated in Note 11.
Income Taxes
Gulfport uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences of (1) temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities and (2) operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are based on enacted tax rates applicable to the future period when those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income during the period the rate change is enacted. Deferred tax assets are recognized as income in the year in which realization becomes determinable. A valuation allowance is provided for deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company is subject to U.S. federal income tax as well as income tax of multiple jurisdictions. The Company’s 2003 – 2016 U.S. federal and 1997 - 2016 state income tax returns remain open to examination by tax authorities, due to net operating losses. As of December 31, 2017, the Company has no unrecognized tax benefits that would have a material impact on the effective rate. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to income tax matters as interest expense and general and administrative expenses, respectively.
On December 22, 2017, the President of the United States signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("Tax Act"). Further information on the tax impacts of the Tax Act is included in Note 10 of the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Revenue Recognition
Natural gas revenues are recorded in the month produced and delivered to the purchaser using the entitlement method, whereby any production volumes received in excess of the Company’s ownership percentage in the property are recorded as a liability. If less than Gulfport’s entitlement is received, the underproduction is recorded as a receivable. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company had a gas imbalance receivable of approximately $0.2 million. Oil revenues are recognized when ownership transfers, which occurs in the month produced.
Investments—Equity Method
Investments in entities in which the Company owns an equity interest greater than 20% and less than 50% and/or investments in which it has significant influence are accounted for under the equity method. Under the equity method, the Company’s share of investees’ earnings or loss is recognized in the statement of operations.
The Company reviews its investments annually to determine if a loss in value which is other than a temporary decline has occurred. If such loss has occurred, the Company recognizes an impairment provision. The Company recognized impairment charges of $23.1 million and $101.6 million related to its investment in Grizzly Oil Sands ULC for the years ended December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, respectively. There was no impairment charge recorded for the year ended December 31, 2017.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation in accordance with the provisions of FASB ASC 718, “Compensation—Stock Compensation” (“FASB ASC 718”). FASB ASC 718 requires share-based payments to employees, including grants of restricted stock, to be recognized as equity or liabilities at the fair value on the date of grant and to be expensed over the applicable vesting period. The vesting periods for restricted shares range between one to four years with annual vesting installments.
Derivative Instruments
The Company utilizes commodity derivatives to manage the price risk associated with forecasted sale of its natural gas, crude oil and natural gas liquid production. The Company follows the provisions of FASB ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging” (“FASB ASC 815”) as amended. It requires that all derivative instruments be recognized as assets or liabilities in the balance sheet, measured at fair value.
The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the resulting designation. While the Company has historically designated derivative instruments as accounting hedges, effective January 1, 2015, the Company discontinued hedge accounting prospectively. The Company's current commodity derivative instruments are not designated as hedges for accounting purposes. Accordingly, the changes in fair value are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations in the period of change. Gains and losses on derivatives are included in cash flows from operating activities.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates. Significant estimates with regard to these financial statements include the estimate of proved oil and gas reserve quantities and the related present value of estimated future net cash flows there from, the amount and timing of asset retirement obligations, the realization of deferred tax assets, the fair value determination of acquired assets and liabilities and the realization of future net operating loss carryforwards available as reductions of income tax expense. The estimate of the Company’s oil and gas reserves is used to compute depletion, depreciation, amortization and impairment of oil and gas properties.
Certain reclassifications have been made to prior period financial statements and related disclosures to conform to current period presentation. These reclassifications have no impact on previous reported total assets, total liabilities, net income (loss) or total operating cash flows.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in Topic 605, Revenue Recognition, and most industry-specific guidance. Subsequent to ASU 2014-09, the FASB issued several related ASU's to clarify the application of the revenue recognition standard. The core principle of the new standard is for the recognition of revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in amounts that reflect the payment to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The new standard will also result in enhanced revenue disclosures, provide guidance for transactions that were not previously addressed comprehensively and improve guidance for multiple-element arrangements. The ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those years. The new standard permits retrospective application using either of the following methodologies: (i) restatement of each prior reporting period presented (full retrospective method) or (ii) recognition of a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of initial application (modified retrospective method). In July 2015, the FASB decided to defer the effective date by one year (until 2018). The Company has evaluated the impact of this ASU on its consolidated financial statements. This evaluation required, among other things, a review of existing contracts the Company has with its customers within each of the revenue streams identified within its business, including natural gas sales, oil and condensate sales and natural gas liquid sales. Substantially all of the Company's revenue is earned pursuant to agreements under which it has currently interpreted one performance obligation, which is satisfied at a point-in-time. The Company did not identify any changes to its revenue recognition policies that would result in a material effect on the timing of the Company's revenue recognition or its financial position, results of operations, net income or cash flows. Additionally, the Company does not believe further disaggregation of revenue will be required under the new standard. The adoption of this ASU will have an impact on the Company's revenue related disclosures and internal controls over financial reporting as the Company's revenue recognition related disclosures will expand upon adoption of the new standard. The Company is currently in the process of finalizing documentation of new policies, procedures, systems, controls and data requirements as the standard is implemented. The Company will be in a position to begin reporting under the new standard beginning in the first quarter of 2018, using the modified retrospective method.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases. The guidance requires the lessee to recognize most leases on the balance sheet thereby resulting in the recognition of lease assets and liability for those leases currently classified as operating leases. The accounting for lessors is largely unchanged. The guidance is effective for periods after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of this guidance on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures and as contracts are reviewed under the new standard, this analysis could result in an impact to the Company's financial statements; however, that impact is currently not known.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-05, Effect of Derivative Contract Novations on Existing Hedge Accounting Relationships. The guidance was issued to clarify that change in the counterparty to a derivative instrument that had been designated as the hedging instrument under Topic 815, does not require designation of that hedging relationship provided that all other hedge accounting criteria continue to be met. The Company adopted the standard as of January 1, 2017. There was no impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements because all current derivative instruments are not designated for hedge accounting.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. This guidance was intended to simplify the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities and classification on the statement of cash flows. The Company adopted the standard as of January 1, 2017. The Company has elected to recognize forfeitures of awards as they occur. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This ASU amends guidance on reporting credit losses for assets held at amortized cost basis and available for sale debt securities. For assets held at amortized cost basis, this ASU eliminates the probable initial recognition threshold in current GAAP and instead, requires an entity to reflect its current estimate of all expected credit losses. The amendments affect loans, debt securities, trade receivables, net investments in leases, off balance sheet credit exposure, reinsurance receivables and any other financial assets not excluded from the scope that have the contractual right to receive cash. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this standard will have on its financial statements and related disclosures and does not anticipate it to have a material affect.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows: Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. This guidance provides guidance of eight specific cash flow issues. This amendment is effective for periods after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of this guidance on its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Clarifying the Definition of a Business. Under the current business combination guidance, there are three elements of a business: inputs, processes and outputs. The revised guidance adds an initial screen test to determine if substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single asset or group of similar assets. If that screen is met, the set of assets is not a business. The new framework also specifies the minimum required inputs and processes necessary to be a business. This amendment is effective for periods after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of this ASU on its consolidated financial statements.