Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2015
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Gulfport Energy Corporation (“Gulfport” or the “Company”) is an independent oil and gas exploration, development and production company with its principal properties located in the Utica Shale primarily in Eastern Ohio and along the Louisiana Gulf Coast. The Company also has an interest in producing properties in Northwestern Colorado in the Niobrara Formation and in Western North Dakota in the Bakken Formation, and has investments in companies operating in the United States, Canada and Thailand.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents for purposes of the statement of cash flows.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Grizzly Holdings Inc., Jaguar Resources LLC, Gator Marine, Inc., Gator Marine Ivanhoe, Inc., Westhawk Minerals LLC, Puma Resources, Inc. and Gulfport Buckeye LLC. All intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Accounts Receivable
The Company’s accounts receivable—oil and gas primarily are from companies in the oil and gas industry. The majority of its receivables are from three purchasers of the Company’s oil and gas and receivables from joint interest owners on properties the Company operates. Credit is extended based on evaluation of a customer’s payment history and, generally, collateral is not required. Accounts receivable are due within 30 days and are stated at amounts due from customers, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts when the Company believes collection is doubtful. Accounts outstanding longer than the contractual payment terms are considered past due. The Company determines its allowance by considering a number of factors, including the length of time accounts receivable are past due, the Company’s previous loss history, the customer’s current ability to pay its obligation to the Company, amounts which may be obtained by an offset against production proceeds due the customer and the condition of the general economy and the industry as a whole. The Company writes off specific accounts receivable when they become uncollectible, and payments subsequently received on such receivables are credited to the allowance for doubtful accounts. No allowance was deemed necessary at December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014.
Oil and Gas Properties
The Company uses the full cost method of accounting for oil and gas operations. Accordingly, all costs, including nonproductive costs and certain general and administrative costs directly associated with acquisition, exploration and development of oil and gas properties, are capitalized. Under the full cost method of accounting, the Company is required to perform a ceiling test each quarter. The test determines a limit, or ceiling, on the book value of the oil and gas properties. Net capitalized costs are limited to the lower of unamortized cost net of deferred income taxes or the cost center ceiling. The cost center ceiling is defined as the sum of (a) estimated future net revenues, discounted at 10% per annum, from proved reserves, based on the 12-month unweighted average of the first-day-of-the-month price for 2015, 2014 and 2013, adjusted for any contract provisions or financial derivatives, if any, that hedge the Company’s oil and natural gas revenue, and excluding the estimated abandonment costs for properties with asset retirement obligations recorded on the balance sheet, (b) the cost of properties not being amortized, if any, and (c) the lower of cost or market value of unproved properties included in the cost being amortized, including related deferred taxes for differences between the book and tax basis of the oil and natural gas properties. If the net book value, including related deferred taxes, exceeds the ceiling, an impairment or noncash writedown is required. Ceiling test impairment can result in a significant loss for a particular period; however, future depletion expense would be reduced. A decline in oil and gas prices may result in an impairment of oil and gas properties. As a result of the decline in commodity prices, the Company recognized a ceiling test impairment of $1.4 billion for the year ended December 31, 2015. If prices of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids continue to decline, the Company may be required to further write down the value of its oil and natural gas properties, which could negatively affect its results of operations.
Such capitalized costs, including the estimated future development costs and site remediation costs of proved undeveloped properties are depleted by an equivalent units-of-production method, converting barrels to gas at the ratio of one barrel of oil to six Mcf of gas. No gain or loss is recognized upon the disposal of oil and gas properties, unless such dispositions significantly alter the relationship between capitalized costs and proven oil and gas reserves. Oil and gas properties not subject to amortization consist of the cost of unproved leaseholds and totaled $1.8 billion and $1.5 billion at December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively. These costs are reviewed quarterly by management for impairment. If impairment has occurred, the portion of cost in excess of the current value is transferred to the cost of oil and gas properties subject to amortization. Factors considered by management in its impairment assessment include drilling results by Gulfport and other operators, the terms of oil and gas leases not held by production, and available funds for exploration and development.
The Company accounts for its abandonment and restoration liabilities under Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 410, “Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations” (“FASB ASC 410”), which requires the Company to record a liability equal to the fair value of the estimated cost to retire an asset. The asset retirement liability is recorded in the period in which the obligation meets the definition of a liability, which is generally when the asset is placed into service. When the liability is initially recorded, the Company increases the carrying amount of oil and natural gas properties by an amount equal to the original liability. The liability is accreted to its present value each period, and the capitalized cost is included in capitalized costs and depreciated consistent with depletion of reserves. Upon settlement of the liability or the sale of the well, the liability is reversed. These liability amounts may change because of changes in asset lives, estimated costs of abandonment or legal or statutory remediation requirements.
Other Property and Equipment
Depreciation of other property and equipment is provided on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the related assets, which range from 3 to 30 years.
Foreign Currency
The U.S. dollar is the functional currency for Gulfport’s consolidated operations. However, the Company has an equity investment in a Canadian entity whose functional currency is the Canadian dollar. The assets and liabilities of the Canadian investment are translated into U.S. dollars based on the current exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet dates. Canadian income and expenses are translated at average rates for the periods presented and equity contributions are translated at the current exchange rate in effect at the date of the contribution. Translation adjustments have no effect on net income and are included in accumulated other comprehensive income in stockholders’ equity. The following table presents the balances of the Company’s cumulative translation adjustments included in accumulated other comprehensive loss.
(In thousands)

December 31, 2012

December 31, 2013
December 31, 2014
December 31, 2015

Net Income per Common Share
Basic net income per common share is computed by dividing income attributable to common stock by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted net income per common share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if options or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock. Potential common shares are not included if their effect would be anti-dilutive. Calculations of basic and diluted net income per common share are illustrated in Note 11.
Income Taxes
Gulfport uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences of (1) temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities and (2) operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are based on enacted tax rates applicable to the future period when those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income during the period the rate change is enacted. Deferred tax assets are recognized as income in the year in which realization becomes determinable. A valuation allowance is provided for deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company is subject to U.S. federal income tax as well as income tax of multiple jurisdictions. The Company’s 1998 – 2015 U.S. federal and state income tax returns remain open to examination by tax authorities, due to net operating losses. As of December 31, 2015, the Company has no unrecognized tax benefits that would have a material impact on the effective rate. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to income tax matters as interest expense and general and administrative expenses, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2015, there is no interest or penalties associated with uncertain tax positions in the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Revenue Recognition
Natural gas revenues are recorded in the month produced and delivered to the purchaser using the entitlement method, whereby any production volumes received in excess of the Company’s ownership percentage in the property are recorded as a liability. If less than Gulfport’s entitlement is received, the underproduction is recorded as a receivable. At December 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company had no gas imbalance liability. Oil revenues are recognized when ownership transfers, which occurs in the month produced.
Investments—Equity Method
Investments in entities in which the Company owns an equity interest greater than 20% and less than 50% and/or investments in which it has significant influence are accounted for under the equity method. Under the equity method, the Company’s share of investees’ earnings or loss is recognized in the statement of operations. In accordance FASB ASC 825, "Financial Instruments," the Company elected the fair value option of accounting for its equity method investment in the common stock of Diamondback Energy Inc. ("Diamondback"). At the end of each reporting period, the quoted closing market price of Diamondback's common stock was multiplied by the total shares owned by the Company and the resulting gain or loss was recognized in loss (income) from equity method investments in the consolidated statements of operations. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company did not own any shares of Diamondback's common stock.
The Company reviews its investments annually to determine if a loss in value which is other than a temporary decline has occurred. If such loss has occurred, the Company recognizes an impairment provision. For the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company recognized impairment charges of $101.6 million related to its investment in Grizzly Oil Sands ULC. At December 31, 2014, the Company recognized an impairment of $12.1 million related to its investment in Tatex Thailand III, LLC. See Note 4 for further discussion of these impairments.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation in accordance with the provisions of FASB ASC 718, “Compensation—Stock Compensation” (“FASB ASC 718”). FASB ASC 718 requires share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options and restricted stock, to be recognized as equity or liabilities at the fair value on the date of grant and to be expensed over the applicable vesting period. The vesting periods for the options range between three to five years and have a maximum contractual term of ten years. The Company has not granted any options since 2005, and, at December 31, 2015, there were no options outstanding. The vesting periods for restricted shares range between two to five years with either quarterly or annual vesting installments.
Derivative Instruments
The Company utilizes commodity derivatives to manage the price risk associated with forecasted sale of its natural gas, crude oil and natural gas liquid production. The Company follows the provisions of FASB ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging” (“FASB ASC 815”) as amended. It requires that all derivative instruments be recognized as assets or liabilities in the balance sheet, measured at fair value.
The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the resulting designation. While the Company has historically designated derivative instruments as accounting hedges, effective January 1, 2015, the Company discontinued hedge accounting prospectively. The Company's current commodity derivative instruments are not designated as hedges for accounting purposes. Accordingly, the changes in fair value are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations in the period of change. Gains and losses on derivatives are included in cash flows from operating activities.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates. Significant estimates with regard to these financial statements include the estimate of proved oil and gas reserve quantities and the related present value of estimated future net cash flows there from, the amount and timing of asset retirement obligations, the realization of deferred tax assets and the realization of future net operating loss carryforwards available as reductions of income tax expense. The estimate of the Company’s oil and gas reserves is used to compute depletion, depreciation, amortization and impairment of oil and gas properties.

Certain reclassifications have been made to prior period financial statements to conform to current period presentation.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In April 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update ("ASU") No. 2015-02, "Consolidation (Topic 810): Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis." This ASU provides additional guidance to reporting entities in evaluating whether certain legal entities, such as limited partnerships, limited liability corporation and securitization structure, should be consolidated. The ASU is considered to be an improvement on current accounting requirements as it reduces the number of existing consolidation models. The ASU is effective for annual and interim periods beginning in 2016 and is required to be adopted using a retrospective or modified retrospective approach, with early adoption permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact on its consolidated financial statements. This evaluation could result in certain of the Company's equity investments being accounted for as variable interest entities.

In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-03, "Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs (ASU 2015-03)." To simplify presentation of debt issuance costs, ASU 2015-03 requires that debt issuance costs be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of the debt liability, consistent with debt discounts. ASU 2015-03 is effective for public entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. The Company has reclassified $17.9 million and $12.9 million of debt issuance costs to offset long-term debt at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, as shown in Note 6.

In September 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-16, "Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments." The guidance eliminates the requirement to retrospectively adjust the financial statements for measurement-period adjustments that occur in periods after a business combination is consummated. Measurement period adjustments are calculated as if they were known at the acquisition date, but are recognized in the reporting period in which they are determined. Additional disclosures are required about the impact on current-period income statement line items of adjustments that would have been recognized in prior periods if prior-period information had been revised. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2015 and is to be applied prospectively to adjustments of provisional amounts that occur after the effective date. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating this new guidance and does not expect it to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.

In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, "Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes (Topic 705)." Current guidance requires an entity to separate deferred income tax liabilities and assets into current and noncurrent amounts in a classified statement of financial position. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. Deferred tax liabilities and assets that are not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting are classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. To simplify the presentation of deferred income taxes, the amendments in this update require that deferred income tax liabilities and assets be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position. This update is effective for public entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2016. Earlier application is permitted for all entities as of the beginning of an interim or annual reporting period. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact on its consolidated financial statements.

In April 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-08, "Presentation of Financial Statements (Topic 205) and Property, Plant, and Equipment (Topic 360) - Reporting Discontinued Operations and Disclosures of Disposals of Components of an Entity." ASU 2014-08 changes the threshold for a disposal to qualify as a discontinued operation and requires new disclosures of both discontinued operations and certain other material disposal transactions that do not meet the revised definition of a discontinued operation. Under the updated standard, a disposal of a component or group of components of an entity is required to be reported as discontinued operations if the disposal represents a strategic shift that has (or will have) a major effect on an entity’s operations and financial results when the component or group of components of the entity (1) has been disposed of by a sale, (2) has been disposed of other than by sale or (3) is classified as held for sale. The ASU is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2014, however, early adoption is permitted. The Company early adopted this ASU on a prospective basis beginning with the second quarter of 2014. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers", which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in Topic 605, "Revenue Recognition", and most industry-specific guidance. The core principle of the new standard is for the recognition of revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in amounts that reflect the payment to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The new standard will also result in enhanced revenue disclosures, provide guidance for transactions that were not previously addressed comprehensively and improve guidance for multiple-element arrangements. The ASU was effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those years, using either a full or a modified retrospective application approach; however, in July 2015 the FASB decided to defer the effective date by one year (until 2018) by issuing ASU No. 2015-14, "Revenue From Contracts with Customers: Deferral of the Effective Date." The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, "Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40)." The new guidance addresses management's responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity's ability to continue as a going concern and in certain circumstances to provide related footnote disclosures. The standard is effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016 and for annual and interim periods thereafter. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not believe that the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.